Microphones and miking techniques - Electrodynamic microphone

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With reference to the following diagram we will now describe how it works.

Microphones and miking techniques - Scheme of an electrodynamic microphone

Scheme of an electrodynamic microphone

A coil made of a conducting material is fixed to the diaphragm which receives the sound wave and vibrates as a consequence. The coil is located within a magnetic field generated by two magnets, one positioned inside it and the other surrounding it. When the diaphragm vibrates the coil moves too, thus interrupting the magnetic field lines and generating a current inside the coil. Essentially the magnetic field attracts the electrons present in the coil and keeps them static; when the coil starts to move the electrons remain still, being kept in position by the magnetic field: this results in the flow of an electric current inside the coil. This way the electric signal that has been generated has the same rate as the acoustic wave that hits the diaphragm.

In the following diagram we can see the connections inside an electrodynamic microphone (all professional microphones have a female XLR [XLR ] connector):

Microphones and miking techniques - Connections within an electrodynamic microphone

Connections within an electrodynamic microphone

The following is a short list of the main characteristics of electrodynamic microphones:

  • They are the most resistant and are therefore often used for live performances in which energetic singers can express their exuberance without damaging them.

  • Their resonance frequency is about 2.5 KHz, this makes them particularly ideal for the correct reproduction of vocals and guitars.

  • They are capable of enduring very high sound-pressure.


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