Wikipedia (Beta): Gain

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Gain is a measure of a system's response to feedback.
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    Impedance of a circuit
    The circuits we have looked at so far involve components such as resistances, capacitors, and inductors. Until tensions and currents remain continuous, in other words, have a constant amplitude level, resistance, capacity and inductance values keep constant.
    An equalizer is a circuit which is capable of amplifying or attenuating a certain frequency-range, and to leave others unaltered. At this stage we can interpret the curve which describes the behaviour of an equalizer: a graph of an amplitude-frequency diagram which gets multiplied by the input signal in order to obtain the output signal.
    Filters are used to eliminate frequency-ranges from the original signal. Generally they are designed with passive circuits and are identified by a cut frequency fc (again- this is calculated at the point where gain loses 3dB).
    It is not a distortion of the truth (excuse the shakespearian pun..!) to state that this effect has literally changed music history. The birth of rock music in fact owes a lot to this effect, which was discovered by chance as a result of a wrong amplification.
    Seeing that each loudspeaker reproduces a certain frequency band at its best, in order to reproduce the entire audible-frequency spectrum (20Hz - 20KHz) it becomes necessary to use more than one loudspeaker at a time
    The amplification chain
    An electric signal that is generated by an acoustic source, such as a signal issuing from a microphone, must be correctly amplified before it reaches the diffusers.
    The amplifier
    For a complete study of amplifying circuits we advise the reader to refer to specialized textbooks on the subject. Here we will be looking at the main aspects of the functions and characteristics that relate to the correct calibration of an audio amplifying system.
    Amplification curve
    It describes the amplifier's action on the input signal. The following diagram illustrates a voltage amplifier's possible amplification curve.

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